A typical magnetic sensor suite at an INTERMAGNET-standard observatory: (front) fluxgate variometer, (left) proton-precession magnetometer, (right) theodolite with small fluxgate attached to telescope.
Apparent polar wander path for North America for Late Carboniferous to recent time. The numbers represent time in millions of years before present. Circles represent one standard error about the mean. (After E. Irving, Paleopoles and paleolatitudes…
Fixed-time method for uncatalyzed reactions. (a) Variation of [P] as a function of time for different initial concentrations of [A]0. (b) Variation of amount of P formed at fixed time tf with initial concentration of A.
Variable-time method for uncatalyzed reactions. (a) Variation of [P] as a function of time for various initial concentrations of [A]0. (b) Variation of 1t[P]f required to reach a fixed value of product formed [P]f with initial concentration of A.