Populations (n) of states of a thermodynamic system consisting of N magnetically interacting nuclei of spin 2 at absolute temperatures T = +D/k and T = −D/k, where k is Boltzmann's constant and D is the energy spacing between successive states.
Typical rock mass containing numerous discontinuities. The person in picture is conducting a scanline survey, where a tape is placed across the rock and detailed information is gathered on the fractures that intersect the scanline.
(a) Uniaxial compression test, where an axial stress is applied to a core sample of rock and increased until failure. (b) Triaxial compression test, where a constant confining stress is first applied, then the axial stress is increased until failure.
(a) Example of the failure zone around an underground excavation (×, shear failure; o, tensile failure), calculated using the Rocscience Phase2 computer program. (b) Example of a shallow underground excavation where the failure mode is either…