Industrial techniques. (a) Zone refining on a water-cooled hearth. (b) Electron-beam zone-refining arrangement. (After R. F. Bunshah, ed., Techniques of Metals Research, vol. 1, John Wiley and Sons, 1968)
Energy absorbed during fracture versus temperature. Brittle materials absorb much lower energy during fracture than ductile or tough materials. Some materials exhibit a brittle-to-ductile transition that depends on the test temperature.
Scanning electron microscope image of a transgranular cleavage fracture surface in a steel tested at a temperature below its brittle-to-ductile transition. The arrow indicates the likely fracture initiation site.
Language skills involve comprehension, speech, reading, and writing. The motor speech area (Broca's area) in the brain initiates speech motor functions. The Wernicke area aids in the interpretation of language. The primary motor cortex is…
Graphene structure. One-atom-thick sheets of carbon known as graphene are promising materials in nanotechnology for applications ranging from electronics to medicine. (Credit: Bumbasor/iStockphoto/Getty Images)