Sakdinawat, Anne SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California.
Attwood, David Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California.
Last reviewed:July 2016
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- X-ray interaction with matter
- Reflective optics
- Diffractive optics
- Refractive optics
- Collimators, pinholes, and apertures
- Applications of x-ray optics
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The scientific field focusing on the interaction of x-rays with matter and on the x-ray optical elements that are used to manipulate x-rays in time and space. When W. K. Röntgen discovered x-rays or “X-Strahlen” in 1895, he observed their attenuation but originally thought that it was not possible to manipulate x-rays by commonly known light interactions such as reflection or refraction. However, over the next century, as scientists continued to study x-rays, and as fabrication technology advanced into the nanoscale regime, x-ray optical elements started becoming available and the field of x-ray optics made significant advances, enabling new scientific and technical capabilities. Applications such as extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography and x-ray microscopy benefit from the short wavelength, large penetration depths (in the case of higher-energy x-rays), and chemical and elemental specificity.
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