Wawszkiewicz, Edward J. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.
Last reviewed:June 2019
Show previous versions
- Grape species
- Wine types
- Alcohol content
- Relative sweetness
- Wine production
- Oxidized wines
- Sparkling wines
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
A beverage produced by the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice. Grapes possess two attributes that contribute to their preeminence in wine production. The juice of fresh ripe grapes is mildly acidic (pH 3.0–3.5) and contains about 21–25% fermentable sugar (mostly glucose and fructose). These properties favor the multiplication of naturally occurring yeasts which, under anaerobic conditions, carry out an alcoholic fermentation (Fig. 1) that yields ethanol and carbon dioxide as the major end products. The final result is a beverage with sufficient ethanol concentration (usually 11–14% by volume) to render it relatively stable if it is kept in sealed containers, and sufficient in tartness and flavor to be interesting to the palate. Other fruits yield stable and flavorful fermented beverages only by considerable artifice, usually involving supplementation of their juice with fermentable sugar and with acid. See also: Ethyl alcohol; Glucose
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 10,000 highly qualified scientists and 45 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information