Sayre, Albert N. Formerly, Groundwater Geology Division, Behre Dolbear and Company, New York, New York.
Linsley, Ray K. Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California.
- Additional Readings
An excavation made to extract water, oil, gas, brine, or other fluid substance from the earth. Wells are the source of about one quarter of the water supplies in the United States, all gas and oil, and most of the industrial brines and sulfur. Water wells are recorded in the earliest historic documents and probably originated during periods of drought when ancient humans attempted to reach water by digging a shallow excavation at the site of springs that had ceased to flow or in the dry channels of rivers. Later they learned to dig deeper for water where it did not issue at the land surface. The first wells were dug by hand, and some large deep ones were provided with elaborate ramps which enabled those drawing water to walk or even drive a donkey down to the water level. In the Near East for thousands of years wells (khanats) have been constructed by tunneling nearly horizontally into the outwash gravel to tap ground water which flows down the tunnel to its entrance. Horizontal wells are also used in Hawaii to skim fresh groundwater from underlying salt groundwater.
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information