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The process of converting municipal solid waste (MSW), food waste, sewage sludge, and biomass to heat, electricity, or fuel; also known as energy-from-waste (EfW). Waste-to-energy (WtE) processes include incineration with energy recovery; pyrolysis to solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels; anaerobic digestion to methane; waste gasification; and landfill-gas recovery. Incineration with heat or energy recovery is by far the most commonly practiced of the WtE processes (Fig. 1). See also: Biomass; Biorefinery (wood); Chemicals from renewable feedstocks; Electric power generation; Pyrolysis; Sewage solids; Syngas from biomass
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