Machlin, Lawrence J. Department of Vitamins and Clinical Nutrition, Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc., Nutley, New Jersey.
Last reviewed:June 2019
Show previous versions
- Fat-soluble vitamins
- Vitamin A
- Vitamin D
- Vitamin E
- Vitamin K
- Water-soluble vitamins
- Vitamin C
- Vitamin B6
- Folic acid
- Vitamin B12
- Pantothenic acid
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
An organic compound required in very small amounts for the normal functioning of the body and obtained mainly from foods. Vitamins (Table 1) are present in food in minute quantities compared to the other utilizable components of the diet, namely, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and minerals. Vitamins do not furnish energy, but they are essential for energy transformation and regulation of metabolism. The discovery of vitamins has been the result of primarily two lines of investigation: (1) the study of nutritional disease in humans and (2) the feeding of purified diets of known composition to experimental animals. In this way, vitamin deficiency diseases, known as avitaminoses, have been described. However, with the advent of vitamin fortification of flour, cereals, and other foods, specific vitamin deficiency diseases, including scurvy, rickets, pellagra, and beriberi, have become rare in most industrialized countries. Still, marginal deficiencies of many of the vitamins, which are difficult to detect and largely ignored, are relatively common, and there is increasing evidence that vitamin status is related to the risk of developing chronic disease. See also: Disease; Energy metabolism; Food; Food science; Malnutrition; Metabolism; Nutrition
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 10,000 highly qualified scientists and 46 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information