Bunshah, Rointan F. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California, Los Angeles, California.
Last reviewed:June 2019
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- Extractive metallurgy
- Melting processes
- Casting of shaped products
- Vacuum degassing of molten steel
- Heat treatment
- Surface treatment
- Vapor deposition
- Optically functional
- Electrically functional
- Mechanically functional
- Chemically functional
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The shaping and treating of metals, alloys, and intermetallic and refractory metal compounds in a gaseous environment below atmospheric pressure. In many instances, this environment is a vacuum ranging from subatmospheric to ultrahigh vacuum (less than 101 kilopascals to 10−10 pascal). In other cases, reactive gases are deliberately added to the environment to produce the desired reactions, such as in reactive evaporation and sputtering processes and chemical vapor deposition.
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