Bunshah, Rointan F. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California, Los Angeles, California.
Last reviewed:June 2019
Show previous versions
- Extractive metallurgy
- Melting processes
- Casting of shaped products
- Vacuum degassing of molten steel
- Heat treatment
- Surface treatment
- Vapor deposition
- Optically functional
- Electrically functional
- Mechanically functional
- Chemically functional
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The shaping and treating of metals, alloys, and intermetallic and refractory metal compounds in a gaseous environment below atmospheric pressure. In many instances, this environment is a vacuum ranging from subatmospheric to ultrahigh vacuum (less than 101 kilopascals to 10−10 pascal). In other cases, reactive gases are deliberately added to the environment to produce the desired reactions, such as in reactive evaporation and sputtering processes and chemical vapor deposition.
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 10,000 highly qualified scientists and 46 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information