Hrbek, Charles J. The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Cestone, Joseph A. Consultant in Navigation, Sumner, Maryland.
St. George, Emery, Jr. Formerly, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Greenspan, Richard L. The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- Acoustic transponders
- Dead reckoning
- Homing and piloting sensors
- Surface reference
- Submarine navigation
- Diver navigation and tracking
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The process of directing the movements of submersible vehicles, and divers, from one point to another. The development of improved submersible vehicles, coupled with advances in saturated diving, has resulted in new requirements for underwater navigation. Various methods which have proved successful include acoustic transponder systems, dead reckoning, surface-referenced navigation from a support ship, terrain map matching, homing, and various combinations of these. The choice of the navigation system depends on such factors as precision required, area to be covered, availability of surface vessels, sea state under which they are expected to operate, and the duration of the mission. Redundant systems are routinely provided to maintain the safety of crewed vehicles. See also: Diving; Submarine; Underwater vehicles
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