Type 2 diabetes
Cohen, Zoe College of Nursing, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
Last reviewed:April 2018
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A metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of excess glucose in the blood and tissues of the body, occurring as a result of resistance to insulin action coupled with an inadequate compensatory insulin secretory response. Type 2 diabetes (Fig. 1), formerly known as adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most prevalent form of diabetes mellitus. It results from a combination of resistance to the action of the pancreatic hormone insulin compounded by an inability of insulin secretion to compensate for the increased requirement of this hormone, leading to relative insulin deficiency. In particular, type 2 diabetes is characterized as a chronic metabolic disorder with hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and abnormal energy metabolism. It is caused by a combination of genetic, autoimmune, and environmental factors. See also: Diabetes; Diabetes mellitus; Energy metabolism; Glucose; Hormone; Insulin; Metabolic disorders; Metabolism; Pancreas; Pancreas disorders
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