Sreenivasan, K. R. School of Engineering and Applied Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
- Origin of turbulence
- Fully developed turbulence
- Control of turbulent flows
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
A fluid motion in which velocity, pressure, and other flow quantities fluctuate irregularly in time and space. Figure 1 shows a slice of a water jet emerging from a circular orifice into a tank of still water. A small amount of fluorescent dye mixed in the jet makes it visible when suitably illuminated by laser light, and tags the water entering the tank. In this and similar realizations of the flow, there is a small region close to the orifice where the dye concentration does not vary with position, or with time at a given position. This represents a steady laminar state. Generally in laminar motion, all variations (if they occur at all) of flow quantities, such as dye concentration, fluid velocity, and pressure, are smooth and gradual in time and space. Farther downstream, the jet undergoes a transition to a new state in which the eddy patterns are complex, and flow quantities (including vorticity) fluctuate randomly in time and three-dimensional space. This is the turbulent state. See also: Jet flow; Laminar flow
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