Ledig, F. Thomas Institute of Forest Genetics, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Berkeley, California.
- Age and size
- Zonation and distribution
- Morphology and physiology
- Phylogeny and evolution
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
A perennial woody plant at least 20 ft (6 m) in height at maturity, having an erect stem or trunk and a well-defined crown or leaf canopy. However, no sharp lines can be drawn between trees, shrubs, and lianas (woody vines). For example, the strangler fig (Ficus aurea) is a climbing liana which may develop into a self-supporting tree if the host around which it twines is removed. Many large trees, such as paper birch (Betula papyrifera) or Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), become prostrate shrubs at the northern limits of their range in the boreal region or at their altitudinal limits near timberline.
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 10,000 highly qualified scientists and 45 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information