Carlson, William C. Weyerhaeuser Company, Hot Springs, Arkansas.
- Growth and the cell wall
- Lateral meristems and secondary vascular tissues
- Shoot growth and dormancy
- Onset of reproductive competency
- Root growth periodicity
- Correlative relations in shoot and root development
- Root grafting
- Mycorrhizal symbiosis
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
An irreversible increase in the size of a tree. Trees grow to a larger size at maturity than other woody perennials, have a comparatively long period of development to maturity, and live a long time in the mature state. Trees, like other vascular plants, are made up of cells; growth is the result of adding more cells through cell division, and of the elongation and maturation of those cells into functional tissues. Cells and the tissues they compose differ in structure and function. Some tissues, such as the corky bark, mechanically protect the tree and insulate it against rapid temperature changes. Xylem tissues conduct water, minerals, and some hormones up the tree, and the phloem tissues conduct photosynthate sugar solutions and other organic molecules in most cases down the tree. That fraction of the xylem and phloem which conducts liquids is termed vascular tissue. There are also other nonconducting cells such as parenchyma within the xylem and phloem tissues, which is important in photosynthesis and food storage. See also: Tree; Tree physiology
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