Gill, D. Michael Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts.
Last reviewed:July 2020
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- Bacterial exotoxins
- Intracellular action sites
- Membrane damage
- Fever-producing toxins
- Immunity to toxins
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
A poisonous substance produced by a living organism that is highly toxic for another organism. Toxins are organic poisons. They can be produced by various organisms, including bacteria (Fig. 1), fungi, plants, and animals. Traditionally, toxins were considered to be exclusively poisonous proteins, especially those of bacterial origin. However, present-day researchers consider nonproteinaceous poisons, such as fungal aflatoxins and plant alkaloids, to be toxins as well. See also: Aflatoxin; Alkaloid; Bacteria; Fungi; Poison; Protein
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