Topographic surveying and mapping
Brod, Chris Glen Canyon Environmental Studies, Bureau of Reclamation, Flagstaff, Arizona.
- Presentation of information
- Survey control
- Field methods
- Photogrammetry and remote sensing
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The measurement of surface features and configuration of an area or a region, and the graphic expression of those features. Surveying is the art and science of measurement of points on, above, or under the surface of the Earth. Topographic maps show the natural and cultural features of a piece of land. The natural features include configuration (relief), hydrography, and vegetation. The cultural features include roads, buildings, bridges, political boundaries, and the sectional breakdown of the land. Topographic maps are used by a wide variety of people, such as engineers designing a new road; backpackers finding their way into remote areas; scientists describing soil or vegetation types, wildlife habitat, or hydrology; and military personnel planning field operations.
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