Thyroid gland disorders
DeGroot, Leslie J. Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.
Ehrmann, David A. Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.
Last reviewed:February 2020
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- Thyroid gland enlargement
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Pathologies of form and function that affect the thyroid gland. The thyroid (Fig. 1) is an endocrine gland found in all vertebrates. It produces, stores, and secretes the thyroid hormones, and its primary function (in warm-blooded vertebrates at least) is to regulate the rate of metabolism. Thyroid gland disorders may be classified according to anatomical and functional characteristics. Those disorders of the thyroid gland that are primarily anatomical include goiter and neoplasia (new, abnormal growth of tissue); those that are primarily functional result in either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. See also: Endocrine mechanisms; Endocrine system (vertebrate); Metabolic disorders; Metabolism; Thyroid gland; Thyroid hormones
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