Bass, Jack Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.
- Seebeck Effect
- Results of equations
- Peltier Effect
- Thomson Effect and Kelvin Relations
- Thermopowers of Metals and Semiconductors
- Reference materials
- Temperature variation
- Temperature measurement
- Other uses
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The direct conversion of heat into electrical energy, or the reverse, in solid or liquid conductors by means of three interrelated phenomena—the Seebeck effect, the Peltier effect, and the Thomson effect—including the influence of magnetic fields upon each. The Seebeck effect concerns the electromotive force (emf) generated in a circuit composed of two different conductors whose junctions are maintained at different temperatures. The Peltier effect refers to the reversible heat generated at the junction between two different conductors when a current passes through the junction. The Thomson effect involves the reversible generation of heat in a single current-carrying conductor along which a temperature gradient is maintained. Specifically excluded from the definition of thermoelectricity are the phenomena of Joule heating and thermionic emission. See also: Electromotive force (emf); Joule's law; Thermionic emission
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