Goldstein, Irving S. Department of Wood and Paper Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Last reviewed:June 2020
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A by-product from the pulping of pine wood by the kraft (sulfate) process. In the kraft process the wood is digested under pressure with sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide. (The alternate process name, sulfate, is derived from the sodium sulfate used to replace sulfur lost in the process.) The volatilized gases are condensed to yield sulfate turpentine. During the pulping the alkaline liquor saponifies fats and converts the fatty and resin acids to sodium salts. Concentration of the pulping solution (black liquor) prior to recovery of the inorganic pulping chemicals allows the insoluble soaps to be skimmed from the surface. Acidification of the skimmed soap yields crude tall oil.
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