Davis, George H. Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
- Additional Reading
In its simplest form, a geologic structure marked by the folding of originally horizontal rock layers into a systematically curved, concave upward profile geometry (illus. a). A syncline is convex in the direction of the oldest beds in the folded sequence, concave in the direction of the youngest beds. Although typically upright, a syncline may be overturned, recumbent, or upside down (illus. d). Synclines occur in all sizes, from microscopic to regional. Profile forms may be curved smoothly (illus. a) to sharply angular (illus. b). Fold tightness of a syncline, as measured by the angle at which the limbs of the syncline join, may be so gentle that the fold is barely discernible, to so tight that the limbs are virtually parallel to one another (illus. c). The orientation of the axis of folding is horizontal to shallowly plunging, but synclines may plunge as steeply as vertical.
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