McCrea, Michael A. Departments of Neurosurgery and Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Nelson, Lindsay D. Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Janecek, Julie K. Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Last reviewed:May 2021
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- Acute recovery following sport-related concussion
- Clinical signs and symptoms
- Neurophysiologic changes during the acute recovery period
- Long-term risks associated with multiple concussions
- Clinical signs and symptoms
- Persistent neurophysiologic changes following multiple concussions
- Neurodegenerative disease
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
Mild brain injury resulting from external trauma inflicted during sport activities. Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), is a relatively benign neurologic event in many cases, followed by a rapid and complete recovery within several days or 1–2 weeks. However, sport-related concussion (SRC) has become the focus of increasing concern for clinicians, researchers, sporting organizations, and athletes as a result of its reported prevalence, its acute effects, and the fears about its potential long-term neurological consequences. Concussion is among the most frequent injuries experienced by athletes participating in contact and collision sports [for example, football (Fig. 1), hockey, and wrestling], and it occurs at all levels of participation. It is also apparent in youths and young adults who engage in contact sports; for example, the second most common cause of head injury among 15- to 24-year-olds is sports participation (motor vehicle accidents account for the most head injuries in this age group). The true incidence of sport-related concussion, though, is assumed to be higher than that reported in epidemiological studies because of a tendency by athletes to not recognize or report these injuries. See also: Brain; Concussion; Sports medicine; Trauma
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