Warmflash, David K. Former Astrobiology Institute post-doctoral fellow, Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, Texas.
Last reviewed:September 2019
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- Space gravitational biology
- Effects of weightlessness
- Space radiation
- Related Primary Literature
Collectively, the various biological sciences concerned with the study of organisms when exposed to the environment of space, or of a spacecraft beyond the immediate influence of Earth and its atmosphere. Space biology dates back to November 1957, when the former Soviet Union launched Sputnik 2, carrying a dog, Laika, with instruments monitoring her vital functions. From that point, and in particular through NASA’s Apollo and Skylab programs, the space shuttle era, and the International Space Station (ISS) era that persists today, space biology has developed from experiments conducted both on the ground and off Earth (Fig. 1). See also: Satellite (spacecraft); Space; Space flight; Space station
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