Kalpakjian, Serope Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois.
- Stretch forming
- Rubber forming
- Superplastic forming
- Deep drawing
- Miscellaneous processes
- Sheet-forming equipment
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The shaping of thin sheets of metal (usually less than 0.25 in. or 6 mm) by applying pressure through male or female dies or both. Parts formed of sheet metal have such diverse geometries that it is difficult to classify them. In all sheet-forming processes, excluding shearing, the metal is subjected to primarily tensile or compressive stresses or both. Sheet forming is accomplished basically by processes such as stretching, bending, deep drawing, embossing, bulging, flanging, roll forming, and spinning. In most of these operations there are no intentional major changes in the thickness of the sheet metal. See also: Metal forming
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