Reeve, Roger M. Western Regional Research Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Albany, California.
Lowell, Cadance A. Department of Biology, Central State University, Wiberforce, Ohio.
Touchell, Darren H. Germplasm Research Unit, National Seed Storage Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Walters, Christina Germplasm Research Unit, National Seed Storage Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Roos, Eric E. Germplasm Research Unit, National Seed Storage Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Last reviewed:September 2020
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- Economic importance
- Onset of dormancy
- Release from dormancy
- Mobilization of storage reserves
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
A fertilized ovule containing an embryo that forms a new plant upon germination. Seeds (Fig. 1) are small plant embryos encapsulated in a protective coat. The bearing of seeds characterizes the higher plants—the gymnosperms (conifers and allies) and the angiosperms (flowering plants). Gymnosperm (naked) seeds arise on the surface of a structure, as on a seed scale of a pine cone. Angiosperm (covered) seeds develop within a fruit, as the peas in a pod. See also: Flower; Fruit; Plant; Plant anatomy; Plant growth; Plant reproduction; Seed germination
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