Cronquist, Arthur New York Botanical Garden, New York, New York.
Barkley, Theodore M. Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.
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An order of flowering plants, division Magnoliophyta (Angiospermae), in the subclass Asteridae of the class Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons), but now more typically reclassified as part of the Lamiales. The order Scrophulariales has been subject to a taxonomic reorganization and generally has been subsumed into the order Lamiales. In earlier classification schemes, the order consisted of 12 families and more than 11,000 species. The largest families included Scrophulariaceae (about 4000 species), Aicanthaceae (about 2500 species), Gesneriaceae (about 2500 species), Bignoniaceae (about 800 species), and Oleaceae (about 600 species). Members of the Scrophulariales (Lamiales) are asterids (Asteridae), with a usually superior ovary and generally either with an irregular corolla or with fewer stamens than corolla lobes, or commonly both. They uniformly lack stipules. See also: Asteridae; Lamiales; Magnoliophyta; Magnoliopsida; Plant kingdom
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