Cronquist, Arthur New York Botanical Garden, New York, New York.
Barkley, Theodore M. Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.
Last reviewed:August 2020
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An order of flowering plants, division Magnoliophyta (Angiospermae), in the subclass Rosidae of the class Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons). The order Sapindales consists of 15 families and approximately 6200 species. The largest families are Rutaceae (about 1500 species), Sapindaceae (about 1500 species), Meliaceae (about 550 species), Anacardiaceae (about 600 species), and Burseraceae (about 600 species). Most members of the Sapindales are woody plants, with compound or lobed leaves and polypetalous, hypogynous to perigynous flowers with one or two sets of stamens and only one or two ovules in each locule of the ovary. A large proportion of the species have glandular cavities in the leaves, resin ducts in the bark and wood, or other sorts of secretory structures. Some members of the Anacardiaceae, including poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans; see illustration) and the lacquer tree (T. vernicifluum) of eastern Asia, are notoriously allergenic to humans. Some other well-known members of the order are orange, lemon, lime, and grapefruit (all species of Citrus in the Rutaceae); the various kinds of maple (Acer, in the Aceraceae); and the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum, in the Hippocastanaceae). See also: Buckeye; Cashew; Citron; Grapefruit; Kumquat; Lemon; Lignumvitae; Lime (botany); Magnoliophyta; Magnoliopsida; Mahogany; Mandarin; Maple; Orange; Pistachio; Plant kingdom; Poison ivy; Quebracho; Secretory structures (plant); Tangerine; Varnish tree
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