Strausbaugh, Perry D. Department of Botany, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.
Core, Earl L. Department of Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.
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The name applied to any species of the genus Santalum of the family Santalaceae. The true sandalwood (Indian sandalwood) is the hard, close-grained aromatic heartwood of a root-parasitic tree, S. album, of the Indo-Malayan region. This fragrant wood is used in ornamental carving and cabinetwork, and is a source of certain perfumes. The odor of the wood is an insect repellent; on this account, the wood is used often in making boxes and chests. The Janka hardness for S. album is 1680 lb-force (762 kg-force); its density is 59 lb/ft3 (945 kg/m3). Within the sandalwood family Santalaceae, other notable species are S. ellipticum (coast sandalwood of Hawaii) [see illustration] and S. spicatum (Australian sandalwood). In addition, the fragrant wood of a number of species in other families bears the same name, but none of these is the real sandalwood. See also: Essential oils; Forest and forestry; Parasitology; Santalales; Tree
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