von Graevenitz, Alexander W. C. Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Last reviewed:March 2020
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- Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever
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Diseases caused by Salmonella bacteria. Infections that are engendered by Salmonella bacteria are known as salmonelloses (the singular form is salmonellosis). In general, salmonelloses are commonly spread through contaminated food or water, leading to a variety of symptoms of food poisoning, including diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps. Salmonelloses include enteritis (inflammation of the intestinal tract), which accounts for 90–95% of all salmonelloses in industrialized countries, and septicemia (blood poisoning) with or without enteritis, which accounts for 5–10%. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (often called S. typhi) and S. enterica serovar Paratyphi [often called S. paratyphi (A, B, and C)] primarily cause particular types of septicemia called typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, respectively, whereas S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (often called simply S. enterica; formerly S. choleraesuis) [Fig. 1] predominantly causes enteritis (with or without septicemia). See also: Bacteria; Diarrhea; Food; Food manufacturing; Food microbiology; Food poisoning; Food science; Foodborne disease; Infectious disease; Inflammation; Public health; Waterborne disease
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