Liddicoat, Richard T., Jr. Gemological Institute of America, Los Angeles, California.
- Additional Readings
The red to red-violet variety of the gem mineral tourmaline. Perhaps the most sought-for of the many colors in which tourmaline occurs, it was named for its resemblance to ruby (see Illustration). The color is thought to be caused by the presence of lithium. Fine gem-quality material is found in Brazil, Madagascar, Maine, southern California, the Ural Mountains, and elsewhere. Gem material is almost exclusively a product of pegmatite dikes. Although rubellite is relatively inexpensive, it is regarded by many as one of the loveliest of gemstones. It has a hardness of 7–7.5 on Mohs scale, a specific gravity near 3.04, and refractive indices of 1.624 and 1.644. See also: Gem; Tourmaline
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