Liley, Peter E. Lafayette, Indiana.
Kayan, Carl F. Formerly, Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York.
- Vapor-compression cycle
- Absorption cycle
- Steam-jet cycle
- Air cycle
- Thermoelectric refrigeration
- Refrigerants and equipment
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The cooling of a space or substance below the environmental temperature. The art was known to the ancient Egyptians and people of India, who used evaporation to cool liquids in porous earthen jars exposed to dry night air; and to the early Chinese, Greeks, and Romans, who used natural ice or snow stored in underground pits for cooling wine and other delicacies. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries natural ice cut from lakes and ponds in winter was stored underground for use in summer. The technique of mechanical refrigeration began with the invention of machines for making artificial ice. Great strides have been made in the twentieth century in the application of mechanical refrigeration to fields other than ice making, including the direct cooling and freezing of perishable foods and air conditioning for industry and human comfort.
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information