Radio-frequency impedance measurements
Callegaro, Luca Electromagnetism Division, Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Torino, Italy.
- Impedance definitions
- Measurement methods
- I–V method and the LCR meter
- Resonance method and the Q meter
- Network analysis
- Calculable standards
- Cable and fixture effects
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The measurements of electrical impedance at frequencies ranging from a few tens of kilohertz to about 1 GHz. This broad radio-frequency (RF) range encompasses frequencies from the extralow-frequency band to the very-high-frequency (VHF) and ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) bands. At such frequencies, an electromagnetic field can radiate from the device under measurement and interact with the environment and the measurement setup itself, thus affecting the reading. To avoid such effects an accurate measurand definition, stating precisely how voltage and current have to be measured, is of primary importance. The effects of measurement cables and connection fixtures must also be taken into account. Several measurement methods are employed at radio frequencies, which can be grouped loosely as I–V methods, resonance methods, bridges, and network analysis. See also: Electrical impedance; Radio-wave propagation
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