Jones, Lawrence W. Harrison M. Randell Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Greenberg, O. W. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Mathematical and Physical Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland.
Last reviewed:August 2020
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- Search for fundamental constituents
- Evidence supporting the quark model
- Kinds of quarks
- Up, down, and strange quarks
- Charm, bottom, and top quarks
- Searches for free quarks
- Unresolved questions
- Beyond the standard model
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
Elementary particles composing protons, neutrons, and other basic particle types. Because they cannot stably exist in isolation, quarks are always associated with other quarks—or their antimatter opposites, antiquarks—in two-, three-, four- and five-particle arrangements, giving rise to hundreds of composite particles called hadrons (Fig. 1). The interactions of quarks with fundamental forces and other matter are an integral component of the standard model of particle physics, which has been very successful in understanding and predicting many phenomena in nature. See also: Antimatter; Atom; Fundamental interactions; Hadron; Neutron; Proton; Standard model
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