Mackey, Phillip J. Noaranda Technology Centre, Pointe Claire, Quebec, Canada.
- Additional Readings
The branch of extractive metallurgy in which processes employing chemical reactions at elevated temperatures are used to extract metals from raw materials, such as ores and concentrates, and to treat recycled scrap metal. The use of heat for pottery making dates as far back as 3500–4000 BC, and is believed to have gradually led to the first high-temperature furnaces used for smelting copper. Small bowllike furnaces were used around 3500 BC for reducing oxidic copper ores mixed with charcoal at high temperatures (1100–1200°C; 2000–2200°F) to metallic copper. The historical metal ages show the development of metallurgy and the beginning of the practice and science of pyrometallurgy. The Chalcolithic Age (roughly 5000–2200 BC) led to the Bronze Age (approximately 3000–1300 BC), which gave way to the Iron Age (about 1000 BC to 400 AD). The techniques of pyrometallurgy were gradually perfected, especially during the late nineteenth and the twentieth centuries as knowledge, mechanical equipment, and materials of construction improved. Pyrometallurgy continues to be the principal means of metal production.
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information