Holmes, Robert W. Department of Biological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, California.
Last reviewed:January 2021
- Energy-nutrient cycle
- Seasonal cycles
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
Mostly autotrophic microscopic algae which inhabit the illuminated surface waters of the sea, estuaries, lakes, and ponds. Many are motile. Some perform diel (diurnal) vertical migrations, others do not. Some nonmotile forms regulate their buoyancy. However, their locomotor abilities are limited, and they are largely transported by horizontal and vertical water motions.
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