DISCLAIMER: This article is being kept online for historical purposes. Though accurate at last review, it is no longer being updated. The page may contain broken links or outdated information.
Pharmaceutical residues in the environment
Aga, Diana S. Chemistry Department, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York.
- Treatment plant effluents
- Agricultural waste
- Analytical and environmental challenges
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
Because of advancements in the analytical methods used for detecting chemicals in the environment, trace levels of prescription and over-the-counter drugs have been found in waterways. The frequent detection of many pharmaceutical compounds in the environment has been an increasing concern because of their potential to cause undesirable ecological effects, which may range from endocrine disruption in fish and wildlife to antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. Residues of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals (such as antibiotics, estrogens, and active ingredients of drugs) are introduced into the environment via a number of pathways, but primarily from discharges of wastewater treatment plants or land application of sewage sludge and animal manure. Most active ingredients of pharmaceuticals are transformed only partially in the body and thus are excreted as a mixture of metabolites and bioactive forms into sewage systems.
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 10,000 highly qualified scientists and 46 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information