- Biology & Biomedicine
- Biochemistry and molecular biology
- Perilipins as primary regulators of cellular lipid storage
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Perilipins as primary regulators of cellular lipid storage
Kimmel, Alan R. Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
Sztalryd, Carole Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
- Perilipins: CLD proteome signatures
- Plin1 in adipocytes: “professional” storage cells
- Plin2: a coat protein adapted for multicell storage
- Plin5 in “oxidative” cells
- Plin3 and Plin4: works in progress
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
Perilipins (derived from the Greek words for “surrounding lipid”) are primary regulators of cellular lipid storage and the major surface coat proteins of cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs). CLDs are unique cellular compartments for the storage of free fatty acids (FFAs) and sterols as triacylglycerides (TAGs) and cholesterol esters (CEs), which are the precursors for energy metabolism, membrane synthesis, signaling moieties, and steroid hormones. TAG/CE storage also serves to buffer the damaging effects of excess FFAs or cholesterol on membranes that can change the organelle surface fluidity and charge, which affects functions such as transport, receptor signaling, and the release of lipid metabolites and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can induce insulin resistance, inflammatory responses, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). The balance between TAG storage and FFA utilization is critical. The pathophysiological consequences of defective lipid storage are illustrated by obesity and lipodystrophies, where the inability to store excess dietary lipids in the CLDs of specialized white adipose cells causes increased lipid deposits (ectopic fat) in nonadipose tissues, including skeletal and heart muscles, the liver, and the pancreas. Ectopic fat is associated with lipotoxicity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Hence, the packaging and location of CLDs in adipose and nonadipose tissues are critical for lipid homeostasis, energetics, and insulin sensitivity.
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