Bujanovic, Biljana M. Department of Paper and Bioprocess Engineering, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York.
Amidon, Thomas E. Department of Paper and Bioprocess Engineering, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York.
Last reviewed:June 2019
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- Paper production grades
- Paper structure and papermaking
- Mechanical pulping
- Semi-chemical pulping
- Chemical pulping
- Bleaching and brightening
- Refining and beating
- Sheet-forming process
- Pressing and drying
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
A sheet material made up of a network of natural cellulosic fibers. Paper is a renewable and recyclable material that has been in use for almost 2000 years. Since its invention in AD 105 (Ts'ai Lun, China), paper has become a highly engineered material that is used for a great variety of applications. Paper grades are commonly categorized as graphic (Fig. 1), packaging paper and paperboard, hygienic, and specialty grades. A steady increase in worldwide paper production and consumption leads to regular development of new grades.
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