Haumont, S. Department of Histology, Institute of Anatomy, Louvain, Belgium.
Konigsberg, Irwin R. Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.
Schulz, Irene Max-Planck Institut für Biophysik, Frankfurt, Germany.
Van Campenhout, Ernest L. School of Medicine, University of Louvain, Belgium.
Li, Choh Hao Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, University of California, San Francisco, California.
- Chordates and lower vertebrates
- Higher vertebrates
- Exocrine pancreas
- Endocrine pancreas
- Pancreatic ducts and tabules
- Endocrine elements
- Cell types
- Exocrine Physiology
- Stimulation of secretion
- Intracellular messengers
- Regulation of secretion
- Endocrine Physiology
- Effect of alloxan
- Effect of HGF
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
A composite gland in most vertebrates, containing both exocrine cells—which produce and secrete enzymes involved in digestion—and endocrine cells, arranged in separate islets which elaborate at least two distinct hormones, insulin and glucagon, both of which play a role in the regulation of metabolism, and particularly of carbohydrate metabolism. This article discusses the anatomy, histology, embryology, physiology, and biochemistry of the vertebrate pancreas. See also: Carbohydrate metabolism
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