Longo, Dan L. National Cancer Institute, Frederick Cancer Research Facility, Frederick, Maryland.
Last reviewed:March 2019
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- Causes of cancer
- Genetic factors
- Environmental factors
- Cancer prevention
- Cancer biology
- Tumor detection
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The study of cancer, including its causes, development, characteristics, and treatment. There are five major areas of oncology: etiology, prevention, biology, diagnosis, and treatment. As a clinical discipline, oncology draws upon a wide variety of medical specialties; as a research discipline, it also involves specialists in many areas of biology and in a variety of other scientific areas. The approach to the study of cancer is multidisciplinary because cancer is a fundamental problem in biology. Thus, oncology has led to major progress in the understanding not only of cancer, but also of normal biology (Fig. 1). See also: Cancer; Cancer cell metabolism; Cell biology
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