Wiest, John M. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
Last reviewed:January 2020
- Counterintuitive behavior
- Non-newtonian viscosity
- Nonlinear effects
- Constitutive relations
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
A fluid that departs from the classic linear Newtonian relation between stress and shear rate. In a strict sense, a fluid is any state of matter that is not a solid, and a solid is a state of matter that has a unique stress-free state. A conceptually simpler definition is that a fluid is capable of attaining the shape of its container and retaining that shape for all time in the absence of external forces. Therefore, fluids encompass a wide variety of states of matter including gases and liquids as well as many more esoteric states (for example, plasmas, liquid crystals, and foams). See also: Fluids; Foam; Gas; Liquid; Liquid crystals; Plasma (physics)
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