Ovchinnikov, Igor Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut.
Goodwin, William Department of Forensic and Investigative Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
Last reviewed:September 2016
Show previous versions
- Theories of Neandertal and modern human evolution
- Neandertal mitochondrial DNA
- Neandertal mtDNA diversity
- Neandertal nuclear genes
- Neandertal genome
- Admixture between Neandertals and modern humans
- Age of divergence of Neandertals and modern humans
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The deoxyribonucleic acid of Homo neanderthalensis. Neandertals (also spelled Neanderthals) are the closest evolutionary relatives of modern humans. Based on fossil and archeological records, they are large-brained people with a distinct body plan and skull morphology compared to modern humans, associated with Mousterian (Middle Paleolithic) stone tools. Neandertals had dominated in Europe and western and central Asia for 200,000 years (Fig. 1), until their population declined for unknown reasons. After retreating to isolated refuges in southern Europe, they finally died out approximately 28,000 years ago. To help decipher the history of Neandertals, genetic evidence in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been invaluable to researchers. See also: Ancient DNA; Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA); Extinction (biology); Fossil; Molecular anthropology; Neandertals; Neanderthal extinction; Physical anthropology
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information