Walker, Warren F., Jr. Department of Biology, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio.
Noback, Charles R. Department of Anatomy, Columbia University, New York, New York.
Last reviewed:April 2018
Show previous versions
- Comparative anatomy
- Axial musculature
- Appendicular musculature
- Integumentary musculature
- Muscle mechanics
- Embryology and histogenesis
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The set of anatomical structures (muscle cells, contractile elements, and associated connective tissues) that are responsible for body movements in vertebrates. The muscular system (Fig. 1) is necessary for movements of the vertebrate body. Specifically, the muscular system consists of muscle cells, the contractile elements with the specialized property of exerting tension during contraction, and associated connective tissues. The three morphologic types of muscles are voluntary muscle, involuntary muscle, and cardiac muscle. The voluntary, striated, or skeletal muscles are involved with general posture and movements of the head, body, and limbs. The involuntary, nonstriated, or smooth muscles are the muscles of the walls of hollow organs of the digestive, circulatory, respiratory, and reproductive systems, and other visceral structures. Cardiac muscle is the intrinsic muscle tissue of the heart. See also: Circulation; Digestive system; Heart (vertebrate); Muscle; Muscle development and regeneration; Muscular system disorders; Reproductive system; Respiratory system
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information