Hughes, John M. Department of Geology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont.
Rakovan, John Department of Geology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.
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A rare mineral that incorporates the light rare-earth elements (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium) and also yttrium. Monazite has a general formula of (La,Ce,Nd)PO4, but Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Y substitute for La, Ce, and Nd in solid solution in minor amounts. The dominant rare-earth element in a particular monazite is denoted by the atomic suffix, such as monazite-(Ce), in which cerium exists in amounts greater than other rare-earth atoms. Monazite-(Ce), monazite-(La), and monazite-(Nd) are officially recognized by the International Mineralogical Association. See also: Cerium; Mineral; Rare-earth elements; Yttrium
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