- Health Sciences
- Clinical pathology and diagnostics
- Molecular gadolinium complexes for magnetic resonance imaging
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Molecular gadolinium complexes for magnetic resonance imaging
Werner, Eric J. Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Physics, University of Tampa, Tampa, Florida.
Benjamin, Tavya G. R. Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Physics, University of Tampa, Florida.
- Water proton relaxation
- Gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents
- Relaxivity and Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan theory
- Recent strategies in design of contrast agents
- Conjugation to macromolecules and further application
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The ability to peer noninvasively into the human body has made magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an indispensable diagnostic technique in modern medicine. Ever since Paul Lauterbur first applied the known principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to imaging nearly 40 years ago, the rapid development of improved instrumentation and new applications has pushed MRI to the forefront of those imaging modalities available to the clinician. The setup of a typical MRI scanner used today is comparable to that of a standard NMR spectrometer used routinely for structural characterization of a sample prepared in a relatively small tube. MRI, however, employs the water proton signal in a much larger human “sample” and relies on the abundant water distribution throughout tissue and magnetic field gradients in different directions to generate the image. Although detailed soft-tissue images can be obtained with MRI thanks to the inherent nuclear spin of the water proton, administering a paramagnetic contrast agent before the scan can further enhance the image in certain instances. Small-molecule coordination complexes of gadolinium(III) are most often used for this purpose, and the effect of such agents can be quite dramatic (Fig. 1).
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