Hazen, Robert M. Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.
- Era of planetary formation
- Era of crust and mantle reworking
- Era of biologically mediated mineralogy
- Implications of mineral evolution
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
Mineral evolution frames the science of mineralogy in the context of Earth's 4.5-billion-year geological history. The central premise of mineral evolution is that Earth's near-surface distribution of minerals has changed significantly as a consequence of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Earth's mineral evolution can be divided into three eras—(1) the era of planetary formation, (2) the era of crust and mantle reworking, and (3) the era of biologically mediated mineralogy—and further subdivided into 10 stages (see table). A surprising result of this approach is that two-thirds of the more than 4500 known species of minerals on Earth are the consequence of biological activity, and thus most of Earth's mineralogical richness would not occur on a nonliving planet or moon.
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information