Mack, Chris A. KLA-Tencor Corporation, Austin, Texas.
- Substrate preparation
- Photoresist coating
- Postapply bake
- Alignment and exposure
- Postexposure bake
- Pattern transfer
- Limits of optical microlithography
- Additional Readings
The formation of small three-dimensional relief images on the surface of a substrate for subsequent transfer of this pattern into the substrate itself, as used in such applications as semiconductor fabrication. The fabrication of an integrated circuit (IC) requires a variety of physical and chemical processes performed on a semiconductor (for example, silicon) substrate. In general, the various processes used to make an IC fall into three categories: film deposition, patterning, and semiconductor doping. Films of both conductors (such as polysilicon, aluminum, and more recently copper) and insulators (various forms of silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and others) are used to connect and isolate transistors and their components. Selective doping of various regions of silicon allows the conductivity of the silicon to be changed with the application of voltage. By creating structures of these various components, millions of transistors can be built and wired together to form the complex circuitry of a modern microelectronic device. Fundamental to all of these processes is lithography. See also: Integrated circuits; Semiconductor
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