Thomas, David A. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
Williams, David B. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
- Light microscopy
- Electron microscopy
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The study of the structure of metals and alloys by various methods, especially light and electron microscopy. Light microscopy of metals is conducted with reflected light on surfaces suitably prepared to reveal structural features. The method is often called optical microscopy or light optical microscopy. A resolution of about 200 nanometers and a linear magnification of at most 2000× can be obtained. Electron microscopy is generally carried out by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) on specimen surfaces or by the transmission electron microscope (TEM) on electron-transparent thin foils prepared from bulk materials. Magnifications can range from 10× to greater than 1,000,000×, sufficient to resolve individual atoms or planes of atoms.
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