Lyman, John Formerly, Department of Oceanography, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Bryden, Harry Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
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The Mediterranean Sea lies between Europe, Asia Minor, and Africa. It is completely landlocked except for the Strait of Gibraltar, the Bosporus, and the Suez Canal. The Strait of Gibraltar is 13 mi (21 km) wide at the boundary between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean (Great Europa Point, Gibraltar, to Punta Almina, Ceuta), and the Bosporus is as narrow as 0.5 mi (0.8 km), widening to 2 mi (3 km) at the Black Sea boundary (Rumeli Burnu, European Turkey, to Anadolu Burnu, Asiatic Turkey). The Suez Canal, a human-made channel connecting the Mediterranean with the Red Sea, is 87.6 mi (141 km) long, about 270 ft (90 m) wide, and 35 ft (11 m) deep. In latitude the Mediterranean extends from 30°15′N in the Gulf of Sidra to 45°47′N in the Gulf of Trieste; in longitude, from 5°21′W at Great Europa Point to 36°12′E in the Gulf of Alexandretta.
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