Klinger, Terrie Friday Harbor Laboratories, University of Washington, Friday Harbor, Washington.
Last reviewed:March 2020
Show previous versions
- Population assessment
- Mitigation, recovery, and restoration
- Marine protected areas
- Monitoring programs
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The management of marine species and ecosystems to prevent their decline and extinction. As in terrestrial conservation, the goal of marine conservation is to protect biodiversity and ecosystem function through the preservation of species, populations, and habitats (Fig. 1). The importance of conserving marine species and ecosystems is growing as a consequence of human activities. Negative impacts on marine biological systems are caused by such actions as overfishing; overutilization, degradation, and loss of coastal and marine habitats; introduction of nonnative (invasive) species; and intensification of global climate change, which alters oceanic circulation and disrupts existing trophic relationships. Such factors contribute to species decline and extinction in the sea. The growing human population puts direct pressure on marine biological resources through extraction of food and natural resources from the ocean; conversion of coastal habitats for housing, marinas, and other purposes; use of waterways for shipping and recreational purposes; intentional and unintentional translocation of exotic marine species; and pollution of coastal waters and their underlying sediments. In addition, humans put indirect pressure on coastal and marine systems through runoff, erosion, pollution, and eutrophication from terrestrial sources. Additional indirect pressures are imposed on marine systems, and on the entire biosphere, by the production of atmospheric emissions that contribute to global warming and increased penetration of ultraviolet radiation. Marine conservation biologists seek to reduce the negative effects of all these factors by conducting directed research and helping to develop management strategies for particular species, communities, habitats, or ecosystems. See also: Biodiversity; Conservation of resources; Conservation of species; Ecology; Ecosystem; Global climate change; Global warming; Invasion ecology; Invasive species; Marine ecology; Oceanography
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 10,000 highly qualified scientists and 46 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information