Alger, Philip L. Formerly, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York.
Herman, C. J. Insulating Materials Department, General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York.
Last reviewed:January 2020
- Additional Reading
The insulated copper or aluminum wire used in the coils of all types of electromagnetic machines and devices. It is made of single-strand wire insulated with enamel, varnish, cotton, glass, asbestos, or combinations of these. To meet the immense variety of uses and to gain competitive advantage, a large number of kinds of enamel and of fiber insulations have been developed and are widely available. To ensure that the many synthetic materials and combinations are properly applied, many elaborate test procedures have been devised to evaluate heat shock, solubility, blister and abrasion resistance, flexibility, and so on as covered in the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Standards. Most important, the thermal endurance is determined by repeated exposure to high temperature, moisture, and electrical stress, as specified in the standards developed by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
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